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Advanced training techniques

  1. Intra-set rest periods lead to greater gains in power and velocity
  2. Intra-set rest periods lead to greater gains in strength and power
  3. Intra-set rests reduce losses in bar speed over a set
  4. Cluster sets can allow athletes to lift heavier loads or achieve faster bar speeds
  5. Drop sets cause more metabolic stress and potentially more hypertrophy
  6. Drop sets do not produce greater gains in muscle strength or size
  7. Drop sets better than reverse drop sets for producing metabolic stress
  8. Forced reps do not produce greater gains in strength
  9. Antagonist stretching between sets increases the number of reps performed
  10. Inter-set stretching does not reduce gains in strength after training
  11. Pre-workout stretching reduces training volume and hypertrophy
  12. Pre-exhaustion increases activation of non-fatigued muscles
  13. Pre-exhaustion in the bench press is effective only for the triceps
  14. Rest-pause training: greater increases in hypertrophy and muscular endurance
  15. Antagonist exercise increases the reps performed in subsequent agonist exercise
  16. Antagonist paired sets increase volume load and muscle fatigue in a workout

Agility and change of direction

  1. Reactive agility increases most after drills with decision-making elements
  2. Sharper changes of direction involve faster decelerations and a greater knee role
  3. Strength training for change of direction ability
  4. Multi-direction exercises best for improving change of direction ability
  5. Plyometric warm-ups temporarily enhance change of direction ability
  6. Nordic hamstring curl improves linear sprint running and change of direction ability in team sports athletes

Attentional focus

  1. Instruction quality and focus of attention both affect athletic performance
  2. Verbal cues alter both peak force and ground contact time in drop jumps
  3. Jumping fast and jumping for maximum height are very different tasks
  4. Mind-muscle connection increases muscle activation at low-to-moderate loads
  5. Mind-muscle connection in push-up increases with greater strength training experience
  6. An internal focus of attention can increase gains in upper body size

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Bench press

  1. Greater gains in 1RM bench press with fast vs. slow bar speeds
  2. Greater gains in 1RM bench press by maintaining fast bar speeds
  3. Contribution of muscles to bench press changes with increasing load
  4. Push up and light load bench press cause similar gains in strength and size
  5. Only small differences in muscle activation between bench press variations
  6. Close grip bench press variation better for upper body power
  7. Slingshot for bench press: faster bar speed but reduced triceps activation
  8. Stability-specific strength gains are greater after unstable training
  9. Freely-chosen psyching up strategy increases force produced in bench press
  10. Load affects the contribution of each prime mover muscle group during the bench press

Blood flow restriction (BFR)

  1. How does blood flow restriction influence hypertrophy during strength training?
  2. Blood flow restriction accelerates the development of fatigue during strength training
  3. Concentric more important than eccentric when strength training with BFR
  4. Continuous BFR no better than intermittent BFR for strength and size
  5. Training to failure with BFR causes muscle damage
  6. Training to failure with BFR causes muscle damage (redux)
  7. Bench press training using light loads and BFR can increase pectoralis major size
  8. Light load strength training with BFR fails to increase determinants of maximum strength
  9. BFR causes greater hypertrophy during light load strength training to failure
  10. Post-workout BFR fails to increase hypertrophy
  11. Post-workout BFR fails to increase hypertrophy (redux)
  12. Using BFR during lower body strength training increases gains in arm strength
  13. Blood flow restriction can cause muscle growth without mechanical loading
  14. Heavy loads increase strength by more than light loads with blood flow restriction
  15. Blood flow restriction (BFR) exerts unique effects due to microvascular hypoxia
  16. Remarkable effects of just two weeks of blood flow restriction (BFR) training in elite powerlifters
  17. Blood flow restriction (BFR) involves a range of effects and adaptations
  18. Blood flow restriction: greater improvements in muscular endurance for the same volume load
  19. Greater fatigue when using blood flow restriction is not caused by increased glycolysis
  20. Reactive hyperemia does not increase muscle protein synthesis after strength training
  21. Muscle damage is similar after eccentric contractions and after ischemia and subsequent reperfusion
  22. Blood flow restriction increases motor unit amplitude during submaximal contractions, indicating increased motor unit recruitment
  23. Blood flow restriction increases blood volume and decreases muscle oxygenation during submaximal contractions
  24. Myofibrillar protein synthesis rates increase similarly after traditional, heavy load strength training and light load strength training with blood flow restriction

Biomechanics

MUSCLE FIBER TYPE

  1. Muscle fiber type is a key determinant of muscle function
  2. Long distance running training reduces muscle fiber size of all types
  3. Endurance cycling increases the size of type I muscle fibers only
  4. Muscle fiber type varies widely between muscles, but also between individuals
  5. Upper body muscle fiber type varies between muscle groups, and also between individuals
  6. Regardless of the prevailing fiber type of a muscle, most of its motor units probably control type I fibers
  7. Strength training and plyometrics produce different adaptations in the properties of single muscle fibers

MOTOR UNITS AND THEIR RECRUITMENT

  1. Number of fibers controlled by a motor unit determine the force it produces
  2. Regardless of the prevailing fiber type of a muscle, most of its motor units probably control type I fibers
  3. The number of muscle fibers controlled by each motor unit increases exponentially with increasing motor unit recruitment threshold
  4. Motor unit synchronization plays little role in force control
  5. Motor units are almost certainly recruited in the same order during concentric and eccentric contractions
  6. Motor unit firing rates are higher in concentric than in eccentric contractions
  7. Motor unit firing rates are higher at faster contraction velocities
  8. Motor unit recruitment (not firing rate) is enhanced at shorter muscle lengths
  9. Motor units are recruited at differing levels of force in different muscles
  10. Blood flow restriction increases motor unit amplitude during submaximal contractions, indicating increased motor unit recruitment
  11. Motor unit recruitment thresholds decrease with increasing fatigue
  12. Motor unit recruitment differs between high and low force fatiguing contractions
  13. Motor units are recruited earlier in ballistic contractions
  14. Motor unit recruitment thresholds decrease at faster contraction velocities
  15. Muscle-damaging eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment for several days after a workout
  16. Increasing perception of effort, either by lifting heavier loads or by increasing fatigue, is linked to increasing central motor command during exercise
  17. The sensation of effort is a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions
  18. Only high-threshold motor unit amplitudes increase after training

THE LENGTH-TENSION RELATIONSHIP

  1. Muscle fibers produce different amounts of force depending on their length, because of differing contributions from active and passive elements
  2. Muscle fiber (not whole muscle) elongation causes sarcomerogenesis

STATIC STRETCHING

  1. Static stretching transiently reduces muscle force
  2. Long-term stretching programs increase flexibility by increasing stretch tolerance
  3. Lower body stretching can increase upper body flexibility by non-local effects

MUSCLE ARCHITECTURE

  1. Muscle architecture is a key determinant of muscle function
  2. How does architectural gear ratio affect muscle function?
  3. Architectural gear ratio is highest during muscle lengthening

FORCE TRANSMISSION WITHIN MUSCLES

  1. What determines how well muscle fibers transmit force?
  2. The three layers of intramuscular connective tissue play different roles inside the muscle

MOMENT ARM LENGTHS

  1. External moment arms affect where an exercise is hardest
  2. Long external moment arm at the bottom of the exercise means that the preacher curl involves greater muscle forces when the biceps is stretched

OTHER KEY EFFECTS

  1. The bilateral force deficit may arise from multiple mechanisms
  2. The post-activation potentiation (PAP) effect transiently increases muscle force
  3. The post-activation potentiation (PAP) effect is caused by changes inside the muscle
  4. Residual force depression describes how the force exerted in an isometric contraction at a given muscle length is smaller when it is preceded by a concentric contraction
  5. Residual force enhancement describes how the force exerted in an isometric contraction at a given muscle length is larger when it is preceded by an eccentric contraction

Concurrent training

THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM FATIGUE HYPOTHESIS

  1. When aerobic exercise is done in the recovery period between strength training workouts, this likely causes central nervous system (CNS) fatigue, which could reduce muscular adaptations
  2. Central nervous system fatigue develops progressively over a bout of long-distance running
  3. Aerobic exercise causes central nervous system fatigue that impairs voluntary activation in a subsequent strength training workout

THE CONCURRENT TRAINING EFFECT

  1. High volumes of endurance training reduce gains in muscle strength and size
  2. Concurrent training reduces rate of force development without reducing strength
  3. Concurrent training increases hypertrophy without affecting gains in strength
  4. Concurrent training: greater hypertrophy but does not increase explosive strength
  5. Concurrent training causes greater hypertrophy despite increased AMPK phosphorylation
  6. Aerobic exercise pre-strength training reduces strength gains only in worked muscles
  7. Long distance running training reduces muscle fiber size of all types
  8. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area is inversely related to the maximum rate of oxygen consumption

Deadlift

  1. Erector spinae activation is greater in deadlifts with free weight vs. elastic resistance
  2. Hex bar allows greater force, power, and velocity than straight bar deadlift
  3. Hex bar involves different external moment arm lengths from straight bar deadlift
  4. Hex bar deadlift involves more quadriceps activation than straight bar deadlift
  5. Kettlebell swing and explosive deadlift training both increase deadlift 1RM
  6. Walk-in deadlift machine involves less low back and gluteus maximus activation
  7. Deadlifts, shrugs, rows, and other barbell exercises do not increase neck size
  8. Similar hamstrings activation in deadlift and stiff-legged deadlift
  9. The deadlift does not cause greater central fatigue than the back squat
  10. Low back muscle activation differs between back squat and deadlift
  11. Sumo and conventional deadlifts differ mainly and knee and ankle
  12. Relative strength of the back and leg muscles influences lifting strategy

Eccentric training

NEURAL FEATURES AND ADAPTATIONS

  1. Motor units are almost certainly recruited in the same order during concentric and eccentric contractions
  2. Eccentric strength increases after strength training in part due to neural adaptations at both spinal and supraspinal levels
  3. Eccentric contractions involve a different neural control strategy from concentrics
  4. Eccentric contractions involve a different pattern of brain activation from concentric and isometric contractions
  5. Athletes can better activate muscles during eccentric contractions
  6. Motor unit firing rates are higher in concentric than in eccentric contractions
  7. Eccentric overload training: greater increases in strength and voluntary activation
  8. Eccentric training causes a large but non-specific cross-education effect
  9. Eccentric training increases the net excitability of the spinal (H-reflex) pathway
  10. Specific neural adaptations after eccentric-only and concentric-only strength training

ANGLE OF PEAK TORQUE

  1. Eccentric training at long muscle lengths leads to greater adaptations
  2. Muscle length affects the shift in angle of peak torque after exercise
  3. Eccentric training moves angle of peak torque to longer lengths

COLLAGEN

  1. Eccentric and concentric training increase muscle collagen synthesis
  2. Eccentric training causes greater increases in muscle collagen synthesis
  3. Eccentric training causes greater increases in muscle collagen expression
  4. Jump training increases passive muscle stiffness by increasing collagen levels

TITIN

  1. Titin is a structural element of muscle fibers, and contributes to force transmission
  2. Exercise increases titin content and titin-based stiffness of skeletal muscle
  3. Titin fragment excreted after muscle-damaging eccentric exercise
  4. Titin is the main determinant of passive muscle stiffness

LONGITUDINAL AND REGIONAL MUSCLE GROWTH

  1. Muscle fibers produce different amounts of force depending on their length, because of differing contributions from active and passive elements
  2. Muscle growth can occur through both passive mechanical tension (stretch) and active mechanical tension (force production)
  3. Hypertrophy occurs when muscle fibers increase in volume. Whether the fiber increases in length or diameter depends on the type of mechanical tension experienced
  4. Eccentric-only training may only cause slightly greater hypertrophy
  5. Eccentric-only and concentric-only strength training: similar hypertrophy
  6. Eccentric and concentric training cause different regional hypertrophy
  7. Muscle architecture changes and strength gains are specific to the contraction mode used in training
  8. Weighted Nordic curls cause greater adaptations in muscle architecture than unweighted Nordic curls or Razor curls
  9. Flywheel eccentric overload training better for increasing athletic performance
  10. Inertial flywheel squat training produces thigh muscle hypertrophy in as little as two weeks in untrained subjects
  11. p70S6K phosphorylation is greater after maximal eccentric contractions
  12. p70S6K phosphorylation increases after both active and passive stretch
  13. Eccentrics increase sarcomere number, and concentrics decrease sarcomere number
  14. Eccentric training increases fascicle length at rest but not during isometric contractions
  15. Fast lengthening velocities cause greater increases in fascicle length than slow lengthening velocities, likely because of a larger contribution from the passive elements of the muscle fiber
  16. Slower lowering (eccentric) phases cause greater gains in muscle size

STIFFNESS

  1. Eccentric training increases both active and passive muscle stiffness
  2. Leg stiffness increases more after eccentric training than after concentric training
  3. Eccentric leg press training increases drop jump height, power, and stiffness
  4. Sprinters display greater reactive strength index, because of higher braking forces

SPECIFIC STRENGTH GAINS

  1. Eccentric overload training is not more effective than conventional strength training for increasing maximum concentric strength
  2. Eccentric training preferentially improves eccentric strength
  3. Eccentric overload training: greater increases in strength and voluntary activation
  4. Specific neural adaptations after eccentric-only and concentric-only strength training
  5. Eccentrics for maximum strength, and concentrics for explosive strength
  6. Eccentric training produces velocity-specific strength gains
  7. Eccentric contractions involve a greater number of attached myosin motors
  8. Eccentric overload training increases costameric protein content and signaling
  9. Eccentric training increases tendon stiffness but decreases passive muscle stiffness
  10. High responders affect gains in rate of force development after eccentric training
  11. Repetition strength is greater when doing eccentric contractions

MUSCLE DAMAGE

  1. Eccentric contractions cause exercise-induced muscle damage, but there is much to learn about the underlying processes and markers
  2. Eccentric contractions cause muscle damage, which can vary in severity
  3. Muscle-damaging eccentric exercise alters motor unit recruitment for several days after a workout
  4. Eccentric training causes muscle damage even after repeated workouts
  5. Eccentric training: muscle damage is not necessary for adaptations
  6. Three weeks of high-volume eccentric training increases muscle size (but not strength), of which a large proportion appears to be due to muscle swelling
  7. Eccentrics cause more muscle damage but similar changes in fiber size

FIBER TYPE

  1. Eccentric-only strength training produces unique effects on strength gains, and may also cause type II muscle fiber type-specific hypertrophy
  2. Preferential type I muscle fiber growth after slow eccentric training

Fatigue and recovery

BACKGROUND

  1. Fatigue during strength training occurs as a result of both central and peripheral mechanisms
  2. Peripheral fatigue during strength training occurs as a result of several mechanisms
  3. Along with lactate, acidosis has traditionally been believed to be a key contributor to peripheral fatigue
  4. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to muscular fatigue
  5. Fatigue in high-intensity efforts lasting 1 – 10 minutes could arise from a variety of mechanisms
  6. Signaling from group III and IV afferent nerves affects the development of both peripheral and central nervous system fatigue during exercise
  7. Competition for blood flow during exercise occurs between respiratory muscles and prime mover muscles

POST-WORKOUT RECOVERY

  1. Strength recovery after a workout is affected by changes in both central and peripheral factors
  2. Strength training workouts cause post-workout reductions in strength
  3. Vertical jump height can identify readiness before a squat workout
  4. Workouts performed during recovery do not enhance muscle damage

POST-WORKOUT RECOVERY: VARIABILITY

  1. The recovery rate for different muscle groups vary substantially from one another
  2. The recovery rate for different muscle groups differ from one another
  3. Post-workout strength recovery is similar in young and middle-aged males
  4. Recovery is slower in untrained individuals than in trained individuals
  5. Performance recovery occurs within 48 hours in trained individuals
  6. Strength-trained males and females display differences in strength recovery after the same workout

POST-WORKOUT RECOVERY: EFFECTS OF WORKOUT TYPE

  1. High volume strength training, sprinting, and jumping workouts take 72 hours to recover from
  2. Greater muscle damage after high volume than heavy load workouts
  3. Cortisol and testosterone levels are increased only after high-volume workouts
  4. Recovery is slower when training with light loads compared to heavy loads
  5. Post-workout recovery of strength takes longer when training to failure
  6. Higher velocities during eccentric training lead to greater muscle damage
  7. External load type during eccentric training affects muscle damage
  8. Higher forces during eccentric training lead to greater muscle damage
  9. Longer muscle lengths during eccentric training lead to greater muscle damage
  10. Larger range of motion during eccentric training leads to greater muscle damage

POST-WORKOUT RECOVERY: EFFECTS OF TEST TYPE

  1. Fatigue causes greater reductions in explosive vs. maximum force
  2. Contractions at short muscle lengths are more fatigue resistant
  3. Strength recovers in 24 hours post-workout, but subjective fatigue does not
  4. Strength recovers in 24 hours post-workout, but jump height and power do not
  5. Strength recovers in 24 hours post-workout, but work done does not

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

  1. Psychological stress increases the time required to recover from a workout
  2. Higher levels of psychological stress are associated with slower wound healing times in humans

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) FATIGUE: STRENGTH TRAINING

  1. Central nervous system (CNS) fatigue occurs during both maximal and submaximal contractions
  2. Fatigue reduces the number of reps we can do from one set to the next. It is made up of both peripheral fatigue and CNS fatigue
  3. Power training workouts cause potentiating effects for 24 – 48 hours
  4. Minimal central nervous system fatigue after strength and power training workouts
  5. Strength training workouts cause transitory central nervous system fatigue in trained lifters
  6. Maximum strength and hypertrophy workouts cause similar central nervous system fatigue
  7. Contribution of central and peripheral fatigue differs between muscles
  8. Central and peripheral mechanisms cause fatigue during strength training
  9. The deadlift does not cause greater central nervous system fatigue than the back squat
  10. High volume strength training, sprinting, and jumping workouts take 72 hours to recover from
  11. Central nervous system fatigue can last for many days after strength training
  12. High volume squat workouts cause CNS fatigue that takes up to 72 hours to recover from

CNS FATIGUE: STRENGTH TRAINING VARIABLES

  1. Central nervous system fatigue is greater during eccentric training than during concentric training
  2. Central nervous system fatigue is greater during isometric contractions than in dynamic contractions
  3. Blood flow restriction accelerates the development of fatigue during strength training
  4. Central nervous system fatigue is greater during strength training when lifting lighter loads
  5. Greater peripheral fatigue with single-joint vs. multi-joint exercise
  6. Greater peripheral fatigue with single-leg vs. two-leg knee extensions
  7. Greater peripheral fatigue with upper body vs. lower body exercise

CNS FATIGUE: AEROBIC EXERCISE

  1. Central nervous system fatigue increases with increasing endurance exercise duration
  2. Aerobic exercise causes central nervous system fatigue that impairs voluntary activation in a subsequent strength training workout
  3. Central nervous system fatigue develops progressively over a bout of long-distance running

CNS FATIGUE: MECHANISMS

  1. Central nervous system fatigue is the result of metabolic acidosis?

FOAM ROLLING

  1. Foam rolling for longer durations leads to greater improvements in flexibility
  2. Foam rolling and static stretching may have additive effects
  3. Foam rolling between sets decreases the number of reps that can be performed

Flow charts

  1. Should you change an exercise in your hypertrophy training program?
  2. Should you follow that strength training program for sport?
  3. Should you include that exercise in your strength training program for sport?
  4. Should you do strength training with heavy loads or power training with light loads?
  5. Should you use heavy loads or light loads to failure in your strength training program?
  6. Should you use supramaximal eccentric loading in your strength training program?
  7. Should you use partial range of motion exercises in your strength training program?
  8. Should you use accommodating resistance in your strength training program?
  9. Do you need to use free weights in your strength training program, or will machines work?

Force-velocity and load-velocity

  1. Load-velocity relationship changes with stretch-shortening cycle (bench press)
  2. Load-velocity relationship changes with stretch-shortening cycle (squat)
  3. Load-velocity relationship changes with exercise selection
  4. Load-velocity relationship systematically overestimates exercise 1RM
  5. Force-velocity curve explained by number of attached myosin motors
  6. Force-velocity profile influences maximum vertical jump height
  7. Squat jump force-velocity profiles not optimal in elite athletes
  8. Individualized force-velocity profile training increases vertical jump height
  9. Cluster and traditional sets have similar effects on force-velocity relationship

Gluteus maximus

  1. Gluteus maximus activation is greater in full hip extension
  2. Gluteus maximus activation is greater in 20 degrees of hip external rotation
  3. Gluteus maximus activation is greater in 30 degrees of hip abduction
  4. Gluteus maximus activation is greater in 90 degrees of knee flexion
  5. Knee angle affects gluteus maximus activation in glute bridge
  6. Hip abduction/external rotation preferentially activates upper glutes
  7. As a hip abductor, gluteus maximus activation is greater in 80 degrees of hip flexion
  8. Combined hip and knee extension reduces hip muscle activation
  9. Can we make it easier to use the gluteus maximus in multi-joint exercises?
  10. Proportional contribution of the hip extensor muscles changes with joint angle
  11. Gluteus maximus size is greatest in strength and power athletes
  12. Hip muscle volumes vary widely between individuals
  13. Hip thrust training fails to increase sprinting ability but increases 1RM back squat
  14. Hip thrust for gluteus maximus, but barbell deadlift for hamstrings
  15. Hip extensors challenged more by hip thrust than by squats
  16. Barbell hip thrusts likely produce specific strength gains
  17. Foot position affects gluteus maximus and hamstrings activation during the barbell hip thrust exercise
  18. Gluteus maximus activation increased by hip abduction and decreased by hip adduction

Hyperplasia and fiber splitting

  1. Hyperplasia does not contribute to gains in muscle size after strength training in humans
  2. Mechanical loading (especially stretch) causes hyperplasia in animal models
  3. Strength training can cause single muscle fiber splitting in rodents
  4. Bodybuilders do not have more muscle fibers than untrained controls
  5. Powerlifters display split muscle fibers: perhaps a sign of muscle repair

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Hypertrophy

MOTOR UNITS AND MUSCLE FIBERS

  1. The number of muscle fibers controlled by each motor unit increases exponentially with increasing motor unit recruitment threshold
  2. Increasing perception of effort, either by lifting heavier loads or by increasing fatigue, is linked to increasing central motor command during exercise
  3. The sensation of effort is a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions
  4. Only high-threshold motor unit amplitudes increase after training
  5. Fast twitch muscle fibers display greater anabolic signaling than slow twitch muscle fibers
  6. Strength training causes greater type I and type II muscle fiber growth than aerobic exercise

MECHANISMS – MECHANICAL LOADING

  1. Muscle hypertrophy occurs when the responsive muscle fibers of high-threshold motor units experience mechanical loading
  2. Muscle growth may occur through three mechanisms: mechanical tension, metabolic stress, and muscle damage
  3. Mechanotransduction within muscle fibers involves the conversion of complex mechanical stimuli into cellular signaling
  4. Muscle fibers are exposed to mechanical loading in different directions within a muscle during force production, because of muscle shape changes
  5. Isometric, concentric, and eccentric training cause similar hypertrophy
  6. Greater mechanical loading increases hypertrophy, irrespective of contraction mode

MECHANISMS – MECHANICAL LOADING (THE FORCE-VELOCITY RELATIONSHIP)

  1. Mechanical loading causes hypertrophy, but muscle activation alters fiber type
  2. Mechanical loading of individual muscle fibers is what causes hypertrophy, after light load strength training to failure
  3. The force-velocity relationship determines the maximum force produced by a muscle fiber, and therefore the mechanical tension that it experiences
  4. Force-velocity curve explained by number of attached myosin motors
  5. Bar speed reductions over a set follow a similar pattern at all percentages of 1RM
  6. Bar speed is identical at a given number of reps in reserve, regardless of the weight on the bar
  7. Velocity loss is key to hypertrophy when training with moderate loads

MECHANISMS – MECHANICAL LOADING (THE LENGTH-TENSION RELATIONSHIP)

  1. Muscle fibers produce different amounts of force depending on their length
  2. Muscle growth can occur through both passive mechanical tension (stretch) and active mechanical tension (force production)
  3. Hypertrophy occurs when muscle fibers increase in volume. Whether the fiber increases in length or diameter depends on the type of mechanical tension experienced
  4. Estimated maximum and minimum sarcomere lengths differ between the lower body muscles
  5. Muscle architecture changes and strength gains are specific to the contraction mode used in training

MECHANISMS – MUSCLE DAMAGE

  1. Muscle damage has been hypothesized to contribute to hypertrophy
  2. Muscle damage after strength training has been proposed to contribute to muscle growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear
  3. Muscle damage has been hypothesized to contribute to hypertrophy for several reasons. However, good alternative explanations exist for these observations.
  4. Muscle damage without mechanical tension fails to increase muscle mass
  5. Many training variables have the side-effect of increasing muscle damage as well as muscle growth, but not all of them have similar effects on both
  6. Three weeks of high-volume eccentric training increases muscle size (but not strength), of which a large proportion appears to be due to muscle swelling
  7. Myonuclei increase in number after strength training, but are not lost during detraining
  8. Strength training and aerobic exercise similarly increase the size of the satellite cell pool
  9. Satellite cells increase in number after both heavy and light load strength training
  10. Satellite cell activation occurs during strength training without hypertrophy

MECHANISMS – METABOLIC STRESS

  1. Metabolic stress has been hypothesized to contribute to hypertrophy
  2. Metabolic stress during strength training contributes to muscle growth, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear
  3. Metabolic stress gives the appearance of contributing directly to hypertrophy because fatigue causes the fibers controlled by high-threshold motor units to experience high levels of mechanical tension
  4. Metabolic stress has been hypothesized to contribute to hypertrophy for several reasons
  5. Post-workout blood lactate levels are higher after slow concentric  training compare to after slow eccentric training, when each set is taken to failure
  6. Post-workout plasma lactate levels are higher when using short rest periods compared to when using long rest periods, but myofibrillar protein synthesis rates are greater when taking long rest periods
  7. Reductions in bar speed over multiple sets are linked to metabolic stress
  8. Lifting to achieve a muscle pump may be an effective strategy for hypertrophy, because of cellular swelling

MECHANISMS – FATIGUE

  1. Motor unit recruitment thresholds decrease with increasing fatigue
  2. Motor unit recruitment differs between high and low force fatiguing contractions
  3. Central nervous system fatigue is greater during strength training when lifting lighter loads
  4. Drop jumps cause muscular fatigue without metabolite accumulation
  5. Increasing perception of effort, either by lifting heavier loads or by increasing fatigue, is linked to increasing central motor command during exercise
  6. Afferent feedback from muscles increases central fatigue during exercise
  7. Pre-training capillarization is associated with greater hypertrophy
  8. Post-training gain in capillarization is associated with greater satellite cell activation

SIGNALING AND MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

  1. Muscle protein synthesis related to hypertrophy only after accounting for muscle damage
  2. Excessive workout frequency fails to increase muscle protein synthesis
  3. Short rest periods reduce post-workout muscle protein synthesis
  4. Training alters post-workout muscle protein synthesis response
  5. p70S6K phosphorylation predicts long-term gains in muscle size
  6. p70S6K phosphorylation is a good marker for hypertrophy
  7. p70S6K phosphorylation increases with increasing workout volume
  8. p70S6K phosphorylation is higher after maximal eccentric contractions
  9. p70S6K phosphorylation increases after both active and passive stretch
  10. High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs reduce gains in muscular strength and size
  11. Heat stress does not enhance muscle growth during strength training
  12. Growth hormone administration does not increase muscle protein synthesis
  13. Muscle protein synthesis rates increase with greater volumes only up to a point
  14. Post-workout mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and myofibrillar protein synthesis (MYOPS) rates differ between trained and untrained individuals

REGIONAL MUSCLE GROWTH

  1. Muscles likely change shape as they grow after strength training, because of various differences between regions
  2. Muscle fiber (not whole muscle) elongation causes sarcomerogenesis
  3. Non-uniform muscle hypertrophy caused by regional muscle activation
  4. Varied hypertrophy between muscles of a group after strength training
  5. Varied hypertrophy between regions of a muscle after strength training
  6. Differing rectus femoris regional activation for hip flexion and knee extension
  7. Changes in joint angles cause altered regional muscle activation
  8. Eccentric and concentric training cause different regional hypertrophy
  9. Muscle fiber type differs between compartments of muscles that are innervated by different primary branches of the same muscle nerve
  10. Muscle compartments are innervated by motor neurons distributed across different levels of the spinal cord

PROGRAM VARIABLES – LOAD

  1. Heavy, moderate, and light loads can all be used to produce hypertrophy when strength training to failure
  2. Heavy loads cause greater strength gains but similar muscle growth to light loads
  3. Heavy and light loads cause similar gains in type I and type II muscle fiber areas
  4. There are four categories of load that can be used when training for muscle growth
  5. Volume load increases more when training with light loads
  6. Similar hypertrophy with the same number of sets of moderate and light loads
  7. Very light loads fail to produce as much muscle growth as light loads

PROGRAM VARIABLES – FREQUENCY

  1. Workouts cause central nervous system (CNS) fatigue. When the recovery period between workouts is too short, this can reduce muscular adaptations
  2. High frequency training (2 – 3 times per week) produces greater muscle growth
  3. Volume-matched high and low frequency training involve similar muscle growth
  4. Competitive bodybuilders do split routines involving several exercises for each muscle, for multiple sets of moderate loads, and with moderate inter-set rests
  5. Higher training frequencies are not more effective in untrained males
  6. Optimal training frequency for hypertrophy seems to vary between individuals, in untrained males

PROGRAM VARIABLES – VOLUME

  1. The non-linear relationship between volume and hypertrophy could be explained by several mechanisms
  2. The volume that causes hypertrophy is not the total number of reps in the set
  3. Higher volumes increase hypertrophy but do not enhance strength gains
  4. Higher volumes do not enhance hypertrophy in strength-trained males
  5. Maximum hypertrophy might be achieved by moderate weekly training volumes, but strength gains may follow a different pattern
  6. Myogenic response to strength training is not proportional to volume
  7. Training volume produces a dose-response effect on muscle growth
  8. German volume training does not lead to greater gains in strength and size
  9. German volume training is too much volume for optimal gains
  10. Volume-matched bodybuilding and powerlifting programs involve similar hypertrophy
  11. Greater gains in strength and size after lower volume, heavier load training
  12. Back-off sets increase muscular adaptations, especially muscular endurance
  13. When training to failure, the number of reps in a set probably has little effect on the resulting hypertrophy between 5 and 30 reps
  14. Varying and unvarying repetition ranges produce different effects

PROGRAM VARIABLES – REST PERIOD DURATION

  1. Short rest periods reduce the amount of muscle growth that occurs after a workout
  2. Longer rest periods are better for increasing maximum strength and size
  3. Longer rest periods between sets during whole-body strength training allow greater volume loads to be performed
  4. Post-workout plasma lactate levels are higher when using short rest periods compared to when using long rest periods, but myofibrillar protein synthesis rates are greater when taking long rest periods

PROGRAM VARIABLES – CONTRACTION MODE

  1. Concentric-only training without muscle damage can cause hypertrophy in just four weeks
  2. Eccentrics cause more muscle damage but similar changes in fiber size
  3. Eccentric-only training may only cause slightly greater hypertrophy
  4. Eccentric-only and concentric-only strength training: similar hypertrophy
  5. Eccentric and concentric training cause different regional hypertrophy
  6. Muscle architecture changes and strength gains are specific to the contraction mode used in training
  7. Weighted Nordic curls cause greater adaptations in muscle architecture than unweighted Nordic curls or Razor curls

PROGRAM VARIABLES – TEMPO

  1. Slow tempos involve similar hypertrophy despite greater reductions in muscle oxygenation
  2. Slow tempos involve similar hypertrophy but potentially smaller strength gains
  3. Tempo has different effects on volume and time under tension
  4. Muscle growth is similar regardless of tempo when training to failure
  5. Lifting (concentric) phase tempo does not affect hypertrophy, because slow tempos reduce motor unit recruitment, while fast tempos reduce the force exerted by each working muscle fiber
  6. Slower lowering (eccentric) phases cause greater gains in muscle size
  7. Lowering (eccentric) phase tempo could affect hypertrophy in two different ways

PROGRAM VARIABLES – RANGE OF MOTION

  1. Increases in muscle volume are similar after full and partial range of motion training
  2. Partial range of motion training can increase gains in upper body strength and size
  3. Larger ranges of motion cause greater gains in distal region muscle size
  4. Range of motion does not affect muscle growth during upper body training
  5. Greater muscular adaptations after training at long muscle lengths

PROGRAM VARIABLES – STRETCHING

  1. Passive stretching increases muscle size and the number of sarcomeres in series
  2. Can passive stretching lead to gains in muscular strength and size?

PROGRAM VARIABLES – RESISTANCE TYPE

  1. Accommodating resistance leads to similar hypertrophy but greater gains in muscular endurance 
  2. Training with and without external load produces similar hypertrophy
  3. Training without external load involves high agonist and antagonist activation

PROGRAM VARIABLES – EXERCISE ORDER

  1. As we progress through a workout, central nervous system fatigue increases. Therefore, the exercises that are done last receive the smallest hypertrophic stimulus
  2. Exercise order affects the number of reps that can be achieved with an exercise
  3. Exercise order affects gains in maximum strength and changes in muscle size

PROGRAM VARIABLES – EXERCISE SELECTION

  1. Using a variety of exercises is better than just squats for increasing leg size
  2. Varied hypertrophy between muscles of a group after strength training
  3. Varied hypertrophy between regions of a muscle after strength training

RESPONDERS AND NON-RESPONDERS

  1. Smaller type II fiber size and greater type II fiber proportion predict greater hypertrophy after training

Isometric strength training

  1. Isometric strength training can cause muscle growth and strength gains, but effects vary according to joint angle, force, contraction duration, and intent
  2. Maximal and explosive isometric strength training cause different adaptations
  3. Maximal and explosive strength isometric training cause different adaptations (redux)
  4. Maximum force isometric strength training and high-velocity dynamic strength training produce different effects on the force-velocity relationship
  5. Central and peripheral factors together explain gains in maximum strength after isometric training
  6. Joint angle-specific strength gains after isometric strength training are caused by central and peripheral factors
  7. Fascicles shorten and tendons lengthen during isometric contractions
  8. Holding and pushing isometric contractions display different endurance
  9. Isometric strength training increases tendon stiffness but not countermovement jump height
  10. Plyometric and isometric training cause different tendon adaptations
  11. Muscle damage is greater after stretch-shortening cycle vs. isometric contractions
  12. Antagonist activation increases less than agonist activation after isometric strength training
  13. High-force isometric training increases voluntary activation but not rate coding
  14. Isometric, concentric, and eccentric training cause similar hypertrophy
  15. Greater mechanical loading increases hypertrophy, irrespective of contraction mode
  16. Central nervous system fatigue is greater during isometric contractions than in dynamic contractions

Jumping

  1. Vertical jump height increases after training because of increases in countermovement depth
  2. Countermovement jump height can be increased in different ways
  3. Back squat and jump squat training cause similar increases in jump height
  4. Jump squat training increases vertical jump height without increasing muscle size
  5. Optimal training differs for countermovement jump and squat jump
  6. Short contact times in drop jump training are not effective for increasing countermovement jump height
  7. Jumping fast and jumping for maximum height are very different tasks
  8. Is there an optimal countermovement depth for maximizing vertical jump height?
  9. Impulse (not force) predicts jump height across different squat depths
  10. Impulse increases with increasing jump squat load, but jump height decreases
  11. Greater impulse (not force) identifies athletes with greater jump heights
  12. Early phase isometric knee extension impulse predicts greater jump height
  13. Contractile properties associated with greater jump height in elite athletes
  14. Higher vertical jumps involve producing greater force at higher speeds
  15. Vertical jump height predicted by squat and deadlift variables
  16. Stretch-shortening cycle, isometric, and concentric-only rates of force development are unrelated
  17. Difference between squat and countermovement jumps reduces with increasing tendon stiffness
  18. Countermovement and squat jump heights increase with increasing stiffness
  19. Fascicles shorten and tendons lengthen during isometric contractions
  20. Isometric training increases tendon stiffness but not countermovement jump height
  21. Plyometric and isometric training cause different tendon adaptations
  22. Strength gains alone are not sufficient for increasing vertical jump height
  23. Vertical jump heights differentiate between elite athlete groups
  24. Jump squat power is related to jumping and sprinting in elite athletes
  25. Squat jump force-velocity profiles not optimal in elite athletes
  26. Adding load to the eccentric phase increases vertical jump height
  27. Adding load to the eccentric phase causes greater increases in vertical jump height
  28. Altered effects of vertical jump training with reduced load in the eccentric phase
  29. Sprinting predicted by early phase force, but vertical jumping by late phase force
  30. Hex bar increases height, velocity, force, and power during vertical jumps
  31. Horizontal jump distance and impulse are increased with hand-held weights
  32. Jumping height and distance are increased with hand-held weights
  33. Hand-held weights increase horizontal jump distance and direction of force
  34. An optimal hand-held load exists for increasing horizontal jump distance
  35. Weighted and unweighted jump training cause different adaptations
  36. Using a hex bar for jump squats leads to greater gains in jump height
  37. Optimal countermovement depth for maximum vertical jump height is deeper than self-selected depth

Muscle damage

  1. Muscle regeneration is different from muscle repair
  2. Excessive accumulation of calcium ions causes muscle damage
  3. Calcium ion-activated proteases cause muscle damage
  4. Muscle damage is similar after eccentric contractions and after ischemia and subsequent reperfusion
  5. Fast twitch (type II) muscle fibers are preferentially damaged post-exercise
  6. Muscle protein synthesis related to hypertrophy only after accounting for muscle damage
  7. Eccentric training causes muscle damage even after repeated workouts
  8. Eccentrics cause more muscle damage, but similar changes in muscle size and fiber type
  9. Eccentric contractions cause exercise-induced muscle damage, but there is much to learn about the underlying processes and markers
  10. Muscle damage is greater after stretch-shortening cycle vs. isometric contractions
  11. Some training variables produce more muscle damage than others
  12. Strength loss after muscle damaging exercise is related to myofibrillar disruptions
  13. Muscle damage at the start of a training program does not enhance strength gains
  14. Post-exercise muscle damage is related to fascicle length change in workout
  15. Genetics cannot explain individual variation in post-workout muscle damage
  16. Muscle damage after strength training has been proposed to contribute to muscle growth
  17. Early changes in whole muscle size after starting a training program may reflect swelling caused by muscle damage
  18. Greater passive muscle stiffness increases post-workout muscle damage
  19. Muscle damaging workouts can lead to losses in muscle volume
  20. Muscle damage occurs predominantly in the middle of the muscle
  21. Muscle damage is increased with both very short and long rests between sets
  22. Muscle damage after unaccustomed eccentric training causes central fatigue
  23. Electrically-stimulated contractions cause more muscle damage but less force loss
  24. The repeated bout effect protects against muscle damage
  25. Countermovement and squat jump heights are similarly reduced by muscle damage
  26. Muscle damage reduces stretch-shortening cycle function more at higher eccentric loads
  27. Many training variables have the side-effect of increasing muscle damage as well as muscle growth, but not all of them have similar effects on both
  28. Post-workout perceived readiness to train is linked to muscle damage
  29. Exercises with different stability requirements lead to similar muscle damage
  30. Muscle damage is observed after strength training in both trained and untrained subjects, and after training with either eccentric or concentric contractions
  31. Three weeks of high-volume eccentric training increases muscle size (but not strength), of which a large proportion appears to be due to muscle swelling
  32. Workouts performed during recovery do not enhance muscle damage
  33. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to muscle damage

Muscle strain injury

  1. Eccentric contractions cause muscle damage, which can vary in severity
  2. Muscle injury can occur through various means, but subsequent mechanisms of repair and regeneration are likely similar
  3. Muscle strain injury is determined by energy absorbed and not length change
  4. Fatigue contributes to muscle injury by decreasing the ability to absorb energy
  5. Low gluteus maximus activation associated with increased risk of hamstring strain
  6. 24-year study supports using Nordic curls for reducing risk of hamstring strains

Neural adaptations

  1. Motor units are recruited earlier in ballistic contractions
  2. Motor unit recruitment thresholds decrease at faster contraction velocities
  3. Motor units are recruited at differing levels of force in different muscles
  4. Motor unit recruitment (not firing rate) is enhanced at shorter muscle lengths
  5. Neural adaptations may contribute to increasing back squat 1RM
  6. Increases in neural drive cannot completely explain short-term strength gains
  7. Motor neurons adapt after strength training by increasing spinal excitability
  8. Early adaptations to strength training may not involve changes at the spinal level
  9. Strength gains are unrelated to either hypertrophy or changes in voluntary activation
  10. Strength training causes strength gains through supraspinal adaptations
  11. Strength-trained individuals display altered supraspinal excitability
  12. Strength training experience reduces coactivation in isometric contractions
  13. Antagonist activation increases less than agonist activation after strength training
  14. High-force isometric training increases voluntary activation but not rate coding
  15. High-velocity strength training increases rate of force development by increasing rate coding
  16. Motor unit firing rates are higher in concentric than in eccentric contractions
  17. Greater increases in dynamic than isometric strength because of increased activation
  18. Motor unit firing rates are higher at faster contraction velocities
  19. Training adaptations in the central nervous system can occur in the motor cortex and spinal cord
  20. Non-local fatigue could occur through a variety of mechanisms
  21. Voluntary activation increases with increasing muscle length, and is lower in eccentric contractions
  22. Very high frequency strength training does not increase neural adaptations
  23. Central and peripheral factors together explain gains in maximum strength
  24. Central factors mainly responsible for gains in explosive strength
  25. Can we make it easier to use the gluteus maximus in multi-joint exercises?
  26. Multi-joint strength training causes neural adaptations in single-joint exercise
  27. Motor unit synchronization plays little role in force control
  28. Strength gains caused by neural adaptations to training do not transfer equally to force-producing ability in other movements
  29. Voluntary activation increases even after training a muscle at an adjacent joint
  30. Self-paced and fixed tempo strength training involve different neural adaptations
  31. Very high frequency strength training does not increase neural adaptations
  32. Single workouts cause adaptations in the motor cortex
  33. Cross-education increases the strength of the opposite limb

Nordic curls and reverse Nordic curls

  1. Detraining reverses muscular adaptations caused by Nordic curls
  2. Nordic curls very effective for hamstrings hypertrophy
  3. Nordic curls preferentially increase eccentric strength at all velocities
  4. Nordic curl increases eccentric-specific strength and fascicle length, but not flexibility
  5. Training programs including the Nordic curl reduce hamstring strain injury risk
  6. Nordic curl and back extension both increase hamstrings fascicle lengths
  7. Nordic hamstring curls increase sprinting performance in soccer athletes
  8. Nordic curl break-point angle closely related to maximum eccentric hamstrings strength
  9. Nordic hamstring curls produce specific strength gains
  10. Nordic curl training increases hamstrings muscle size, strength, and fascicle length, but not flexibility
  11. Muscle architecture changes and strength gains are specific to the contraction mode used in training
  12. Weighted Nordic curls cause greater adaptations in muscle architecture than unweighted Nordic curls or Razor curls
  13. Reverse Nordic curls allow athletes to train knee extension with eccentric overload
  14. Nordic hamstring curl improves linear sprint running and change of direction ability in team sports athletes

Olympic weightlifting and derivatives

  1. Fatigue causes small changes in joint angles during multiple barbell clean reps
  2. Olympic weightlifting less effective than squats and loaded jumps for athletes
  3. Greater hip extensor involvement increases power output during power snatch
  4. Loaded jump at least as good as olympic weightlifting derivatives for improving vertical jump

Periodization and overtraining

TRAINING ADAPTATION MODELS

  1. The general adaptation syndrome can be used as a framework to model the effects of some strength training programs
  2. Training produces transitory changes in fitness, fatigue, and performance

TAPERING, REDUCED VOLUME TRAINING, AND DETRAINING

  1. Tapering mainly benefits low-velocity strength, not by increasing voluntary activation
  2. Detraining reverses muscular adaptations caused by Nordic curls
  3. Myonuclei increase in number after strength training, but are not lost during detraining
  4. Increases in myonuclei (and their retention) may not explain the faster gains in muscle size that occur during retraining
  5. Central and peripheral adaptations reverse at different rates during detraining
  6. Detraining causes losses in strength in both the trained limb and in the untrained, contralateral limb, after single-limb training
  7. Reducing training frequency (and reducing training volume) does not prevent additional gains in strength

PERIODIZATION

  1. Periodization often causes greater improvements in performance than non-periodized training
  2. The principle of specificity is the simplest explanation for why load-periodized training programs produce greater strength gains
  3. Load periodization may lead to greater gains in maximum strength
  4. Effects of load periodization on gains in muscle size are still unclear
  5. Varying and unvarying repetition ranges produce different effects
  6. High-velocity strength gains depend on baseline strength levels

OVERREACHING AND OVERTRAINING

  1. Functional and non-functional overreaching are side-effects of doing too much muscle-damaging exercise
  2. Overtraining has been proposed to occur through several mechanisms
  3. Overtraining causes muscle loss and a shift to a fast muscle fiber type
  4. Overtraining causes muscle loss by increasing catabolic signaling and decreasing anabolic signaling
  5. Excessive workout frequency fails to increase muscle protein synthesis
  6. Short-term strength training overreaching results from muscle damage
  7. Overreaching increases inflammation and muscle damage, and reduces immune function
  8. Three weeks of high-volume eccentric training increases muscle size (but not strength), of which a large proportion appears to be due to muscle swelling
  9. Muscle loss occurs after a strength training program that is high frequency, high in volume, and uses short rests

CHOICE (AUTONOMY)

  1. Autonomy over exercise selection benefits upper body strength gains
  2. Greater autonomy leads to increased maintenance of force over multiple sets
  3. The ability to choose is rarely considered as a key variable in strength training programs

Programming

PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD

  1. Follow the four strength and conditioning principles in sequence to plan a strength training program for sport
  2. Progressive overload is a change in training variables that allows the muscle fibers of high-threshold motor units to continue experiencing the same number of stimulating reps
  3. Progressive overload is key to making sure that progress is actually happening during strength training
  4. If we perform another workout before we are fully recovered, we risk doing a workout that will have no beneficial adaptations

PERCENTAGES OF 1RM

  1. Bar speed affects maximum number of reps at a percentage of 1RM
  2. Number of reps at a percentage of 1RM differs between exercises
  3. Exercise selection affects number of reps with a percentage of 1RM
  4. The number of reps that can be done with a given percentage of 1RM during strength training varies according to the exercise
  5. Number of reps at a percentage of 1RM differs with sporting background
  6. Males and females are capable of performing a different number of reps with a given percentage of 1RM

REPETITIONS IN RESERVE

  1. Estimated repetitions in reserve is a valid and reliable measurement
  2. Estimated repetitions in reserve is related to bar speed in squats
  3. Estimated repetitions in reserve is closely related to percentage of 1RM
  4. Using an RPE scale rather than a percentage of 1RM enhances strength gains

IMMEDIATE STRENGTH GAINS

  1. Power training workouts cause potentiating effects for 24 – 48 hours
  2. Ballistic exercise before strength testing causes increased 1RM bench press
  3. Drop jumps before strength testing causes increased 1RM back squat
  4. Freely-chosen psyching up strategy increases force produced in bench press
  5. Greater autonomy leads to increased maintenance of force over multiple sets

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF STRESS

  1. High stress levels reduce gains in maximum strength after training
  2. Psychological stress increases the time required to recover from a workout
  3. Higher levels of psychological stress are associated with slower wound healing times in humans

TAKING TRAINING BREAKS

  1. Training breaks do not reduce gains in muscle strength and size
  2. Training breaks do not reduce gains in muscle strength and size (redux)

WORKING WITH A PERSONAL TRAINER

  1. Working with a personal trainer increases self-selected loads in a test workout
  2. Working with a personal trainer leads to increased muscle strength and size
  3. Rest period has greater effect on workout volume when using light loads

MEASURING VOLUME

  1. Strength training volume can probably be best measured by recording the number of reps done with full motor unit recruitment and at slow bar speeds
  2. When doing straight sets with moderate loads, the volume of stimulating reps is far less than the number of total reps, because the initial sets are performed a long way from failure

Protein

  1. Very high protein diets improve body composition but not fat-free mass
  2. Higher protein diets increase lean body mass during an energy deficit
  3. Post-workout protein increases low muscle protein synthesis in an energy deficit
  4. Protein needs for bodybuilders = 1.7g per kg of bodyweight per day
  5. Protein needs for untrained males = 0.93g per kg of bodyweight per day
  6. Muscle protein synthesis peaks with 20g of protein after a leg workout
  7. Muscle protein synthesis peaks with 40g of protein after a whole body workout
  8. p70S6K phosphorylation increases in response to increased doses of whey protein
  9. Protein supplements cause increased gains in leg muscle and tendon size
  10. Peri- and post-workout protein fails to increase overnight muscle protein synthesis
  11. Pre-sleep protein is incorporated into muscle protein overnight
  12. Pre-sleep protein increases overnight muscle protein synthesis rates
  13. Pre-sleep protein increases gains in muscle size during strength training
  14. Daily protein intake largely explains benefits of post-workout protein
  15. Whey protein supplementation accelerates repair of muscle damage

Psychology

  1. Autonomy over exercise selection benefits upper body strength gains
  2. Greater autonomy leads to increased maintenance of force over multiple sets
  3. The ability to choose is rarely considered as a key variable in strength training programs
  4. Mental imagery training including modeling increases squat strength
  5. Type of mental imagery training affects size of strength gains
  6. Performance on tests of athletic ability can be increased by things other than adaptations to training
  7. Mental toughness is predictive of high-level kickboxing success
  8. Psychological skills training increases mental toughness in athletes
  9. Psychological stress increases the time required to recover from a workout
  10. High stress levels reduce gains in maximum strength after training

Quotes

  1. Mechanical tension (the force-velocity relationship) 1
  2. Mechanical tension (the force-velocity relationship) 2
  3. Mechanical tension (the force-velocity relationship) 3
  4. Mechanical tension (the force-velocity relationship) 4
  5. Length-tension relationship (transverse and longitudinal hypertrophy)
  6. Length-tension relationship (stretch-mediated hypertrophy)
  7. Time under tension
  8. Training to failure (central nervous system fatigue)

Specificity

GENERAL

  1. Why is there so much confusion over functional training?
  2. Traditionally, strength coaches have recommended training movements and not muscles
  3. Strength is specific in many different ways
  4. You cannot use the specificity principle as an explanation for a training effect, without using circular reasoning
  5. Improved performance in a sporting movement happens by means of transferable strength gains
  6. Gains in maximum strength can occur through several different mechanisms
  7. Heavy load strength training produces proportionally greater gains in maximum strength than light load strength training
  8. High-velocity strength gains occur through several mechanisms
  9. High-velocity training causes proportionally greater gains in high-velocity strength than low-velocity strength
  10. Eccentric-specific strength gains occur through several mechanisms
  11. Eccentric training causes greater increases in eccentric strength than in concentric strength
  12. Eccentric overload training is not more effective than conventional strength training for increasing maximum concentric strength
  13. Strength training causes the greatest increases in strength with the same external load type as used in training
  14. Strength training causes the greatest increases in strength at the same joint angles as are emphasized in training
  15. Strength training causes the greatest increases in strength under the same stability conditions as are used in training
  16. Light load training causes proportionally greater gains in repetition strength (muscular endurance) than heavy load training
  17. Strength training causes the greatest increase in strength with the same force vector as used in training
  18. The hip extensors become more important with increasing load or speed

MECHANISMS

  1. Greater increases in dynamic vs. isometric strength because of increases in muscle activation
  2. Muscle adaptations to strength training include increases in collagen content
  3. Muscle architecture changes and strength gains are specific to the contraction mode used in training
  4. Mechanical loading leads to increases in extracellular matrix collagen crosslinks
  5. Heavier weights are used when testing 1RM on machines vs. free weights
  6. Joint angle-specific strength gains are caused by central and peripheral factors
  7. Regional muscle adaptations determine gains in back squat 1RM
  8. Na-K pump concentration is related to changes in muscular endurance
  9. Capillary density is associated with performance across a range of workloads
  10. Proportional contribution of the hip extensor muscles changes with joint angle
  11. Contractions at short muscle lengths are more fatigue resistant
  12. Velocity-specific strength gains are associated with reduced coactivation
  13. Velocity-specific strength gains occur with reductions in antagonist activation
  14. Compared to a stable variation, an unstable bench press involves greater biceps brachii and middle deltoid muscle activation, but similar prime mover muscle activation

EXERCISES

  1. Barbell parallel back squats produce specific strength gains
  2. Barbell split squats likely produce specific strength gains
  3. Good morning likely leads to specific strength gains
  4. Barbell hip thrusts likely produce specific strength gains
  5. Nordic hamstring curls produce specific strength gains

PROGRAMMING

  1. Velocity-specific strength gains depend on athlete baseline characteristics
  2. High-velocity strength gains depend on baseline strength levels
  3. Resistance to fatigue and endurance strength are different qualities
  4. Endurance strength and maximum strength increase at different rates during training
  5. Partial range of motion training can increase gains in upper body strength and size
  6. Squat depth causes specific strength gains, which transfer to sprinting
  7. Force vector determines response to plyometrics training
  8. Force vector determines response to plyometrics training (redux)
  9. Horizontal plyometrics best for improving short-distance sprinting ability
  10. Multi-direction exercises best for improving change of direction ability
  11. Pneumatic resistance causes greater high-velocity strength gains
  12. Elastic resistance training increases both strength and punch velocity
  13. Stability-specific strength gains: stability affects transfer to sport
  14. Stability-specific strength gains are greater after unstable training
  15. Weighted and unweighted jump training cause different adaptations
  16. Maximum force, maximum velocity, and force-velocity profile are altered in different ways by heavy strength training and high-velocity strength training methods

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Sprinting

  1. Acceleration involves greater hip contribution, but deceleration greater knee contribution
  2. Hip flexor training improves sprinting but not vertical jumping ability
  3. Hamstrings activation differs between accelerating and maximal speed sprints
  4. Hamstrings activation in running is affected by speed but not by bodyweight
  5. Jump squat power is related to jumping and sprinting in elite athletes
  6. Anteroposterior force is key contributor to accelerating phase of sprinting
  7. Maximum sprinting speed is closely related to short-distance sprint times
  8. Nordic hamstring curls increase sprinting performance in soccer athletes
  9. Hip thrust training fails to increase sprinting ability but increases 1RM back squat
  10. Repeated sprint ability is key for team sports, but the mechanisms underlying fatigue are still unclear
  11. Repeated sprint ability is key for team sports, but the optimal training methods are still unclear
  12. Running economy is affected by a range of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, some of which might be improved
  13. Sprint training with and without a weighted vest produces similar improvements
  14. Heavy and light sled loads both improve sprinting performance
  15. Heavy sleds are necessary to increase horizontal impulses
  16. Resisted sprinting with a very heavy sled improves sprinting ability
  17. Sprinters produce greater power at faster velocities during resisted sprinting
  18. Quadriceps muscle size is not associated with sprinting ability
  19. Greater ratio of gluteus maximus-to-quadriceps muscle volume benefits sprinting
  20. Hip and knee muscles are disproportionally larger in track sprinters
  21. Greater vertical stiffness associated with faster sprinting performances
  22. Resisted and unresisted sprints improve sprinting performance in different ways
  23. Sprinters display greater stiffness, which is not linked to increased pre-activity
  24. Sprinters display greater reactive strength index, because of higher braking forces
  25. Sprinters display greater leg stiffness, but similar stretch-shortening cycle utilization to endurance runners
  26. Sprinting is an essential ability for soccer players
  27. Strength training for sprinting, using specific strength qualities as a framework to identify exercise transfer
  28. Sprinting predicted by early phase force, but vertical jumping by late phase force
  29. Asymmetry in high-level sprinters is unrelated to sprinting speed or injury risk
  30. Faster high-level sprinters do not employ more front-side mechanics
  31. Hamstrings stretch is greater in the good morning than in sprinting
  32. Repeated sprint training at 90% of maximum speed = trivial improvements?
  33. Lying leg curls with eccentric overload improves sprinting ability
  34. Faster running speeds involve proportionally greater contributions from the hip musculature to total lower body power during both stance and swing phases
  35. Faster running speeds are linked to greater hip joint positive work done in initial and terminal swing, and greater knee joint negative work done in terminal swing
  36. Faster running speeds involve higher stride frequencies, which are produced by greater hip muscle positive and negative work done in the swing phase
  37. Propulsive and braking impulses differ when running at the same speeds but with different accelerations
  38. Maximum force, maximum velocity, and force-velocity profile are altered in different ways by heavy strength training and high-velocity strength training methods
  39. Reductions in gluteus maximus muscle activation are related to decreases in horizontal force production after fatiguing sprints
  40. Nordic hamstring curl improves linear sprint running and change of direction ability in team sports athletes
  41. Horizontal positive work is closely related to sprint time

Squat

  1. Differences between back squat and front squat are small
  2. Weightlifting shoes may allow a slightly more upright trunk during squats
  3. Barbell parallel back squats produce specific strength gains
  4. Belt squats involve reduced gluteus maximus activation compared to barbell squats
  5. Belt squats involve smaller low back net joint moments but greater knee extension net joint moments than back squats
  6. Quadriceps activation is greater in squats with weight vs. elastic resistance
  7. Looped band around thigh increases gluteus maximus activation during squats
  8. Abdominal muscle activation is low in the overhead squat
  9. Parallel squats cause greater quadriceps and gluteus maximus activation
  10. Partial squats involve greater gluteus maximus activation than full squats
  11. Squat depth causes specific strength gains, which transfer to sprinting
  12. Athletes with better ankle mobility squat with a more upright posture
  13. Front and back squats involve similar leg muscle activation
  14. Hamstrings do change length in the eccentric phase of a squat
  15. Squats where knees pass the toes involve greater knee flexion and quadriceps force
  16. Greater forward lean in descent with increasing load in the back squat
  17. Core endurance partly explains differences in back and front squat strength
  18. Low back muscle activation differs between back squat and deadlift
  19. The deadlift does not cause greater central fatigue than the back squat
  20. Barbell split squats differ from both back squats and lunges
  21. Barbell split squats likely produce specific strength gains
  22. High-bar and low-bar squats display different peak joint angles, but similar forces
  23. The proportional contribution of the hip muscles to hip extension torque changes with squat depth and load
  24. Bodybuilders have a lower 1RM back squat than strength athletes
  25. Regional muscle adaptations determine gains in back squat 1RM
  26. Combined full and partial squat training leads to greater gains in 1RM full squat
  27. Greater knee involvement in box squat than in conventional back squat
  28. Neural adaptations may contribute to increasing back squat 1RM
  29. Drop jumps before strength testing causes increased 1RM back squat
  30. Hip thrust training fails to increase sprinting ability but increases 1RM back squat
  31. Using a variety of exercises is better than just squats for increasing leg size
  32. Regional hypertrophy is associated with improvements in 1RM back squat
  33. Wide and narrow stance squats display small differences in sagittal and frontal plane peak joint angles and net joint moments
  34. Neither the hamstrings nor the rectus femoris increase in size after full or half squat training
  35. Single-joint quadriceps and adductors are more active in the squat than the hamstrings and rectus femoris

Stiffness, energy storage, tendons, and reactive strength index

BACKGROUND

  1. Stiffness is the resistance of an object or body to a change in length
  2. Stretch-shortening cycle increases force in a concentric phase performed after an eccentric phase
  3. Temporary elastic energy storage by tendons allow power amplification during concentrics, and power attenuation during eccentrics

TENDONS – BACKGROUND

  1. Tendons increase in stiffness and size in response to mechanical loading
  2. Tendons experience fatigue damage when they are exposed to repetitive loading
  3. Tendons increase in stiffness early on in a strength training program, and only later increase in size
  4. Ligaments and tendons are formed of a hierarchical structure of collagen molecules

TENDONS – EFFECTS OF TRAINING

  1. Concentric-only but not eccentric-only strength training increases tendon stiffness
  2. Tendon stiffness increases after eccentric training, but not in tandem with increases in tendon size
  3. Tendon adaptations need optimal contraction rate and duration
  4. Tendon stiffness increases after heavy but not after light load training
  5. Moderate but not light load strength training increases tendon stiffness
  6. Tendon stiffness increases more after isometric training than after dynamic training
  7. Isometric training increases tendon stiffness but not countermovement jump height
  8. Difference between squat and countermovement jumps reduces with increasing tendon stiffness
  9. Countermovement and squat jump heights increase with increasing stiffness
  10. Plyometric training increases passive muscle stiffness more than tendon stiffness
  11. Plyometric and isometric training cause different tendon adaptations
  12. Plyometric training increases jump height without increasing tendon stiffness
  13. Fascicle lengthening velocity reduction explains adaptations to plyometric training

OTHER COLLAGEN STRUCTURES

  1. Ligaments and tendons are formed of a hierarchical structure of collagen molecules
  2. Jump training increases passive muscle stiffness by increasing collagen levels

MUSCLE-TENDON INTERACTIONS

  1. Muscle fascicle lengthening does not happen in synchronization with muscle-tendon unit lengthening in eccentric contractions
  2. Muscle fascicle lengthening does not happen in synchronization with muscle-tendon unit lengthening during stretch-shortening cycle contractions
  3. Tendons lengthen less with increasing load, despite the greater forces
  4. Tendon behavior altered by bar speed with the same load
  5. Stretch-shortening cycle produces greater power than isometric pre-tension
  6. Fascicle shorten and pennation angle increases in isometric contractions
  7. Plyometric training increases jump height without increasing tendon stiffness
  8. Fascicle lengthening velocity reduction explains adaptations to plyometric training

DROP JUMPS

  1. Vertical stiffness is the same in one-leg and two-leg drop jumps
  2. Drop landings from a high box involve very large forces and very high velocities

SPRINTING

  1. Greater vertical stiffness associated with faster sprinting performances
  2. Resisted and unresisted sprints improve sprinting performance in different ways
  3. Sprinters display greater stiffness, which is not linked to increased pre-activity
  4. Sprinters display greater reactive strength index, because of higher braking forces
  5. Sprinters display greater leg stiffness, but similar stretch-shortening cycle utilization to endurance runners

Training for high-velocity strength (power)

  1. It is commonly-believed that increasing maximum strength will also increase high-velocity strength
  2. Ballistic and explosive movements display different characteristics from other ways of producing force
  3. Motor units are recruited earlier in ballistic contractions
  4. Motor unit recruitment thresholds decrease at faster contraction velocities
  5. Rate of force development is influenced by several central and peripheral factors
  6. Motor unit firing rates are higher at faster contraction velocities
  7. High-velocity strength training increases rate of force development by increasing rate coding
  8. Agonist muscle activation is a strong predictor of early phase strength
  9. Central factors mainly responsible for gains in early phase strength
  10. Explosive force: early phase force involves increased neural drive, while late phase force is related to maximum strength
  11. Maximal and explosive strength training cause different adaptations
  12. Maximal and explosive strength training cause different adaptations (redux)
  13. High-velocity strength gains are the most exercise specific
  14. Velocity-specific strength gains depend on athlete baseline characteristics
  15. Muscle fiber type is a key determinant of muscle function, especially maximum shortening velocity
  16. Endurance exercise and strength training involve similar fiber type shifts
  17. Faster action potentials in type IIX fibers lead to greater rate of force development
  18. Ballistic strength training increases rate of force development, but not maximal strength
  19. High-velocity strength training increases early phase rate of force development
  20. Fast movement velocity is a requirement for increasing high-velocity strength
  21. Velocity-specific strength gains are associated with reduced coactivation
  22. Velocity-specific strength gains occur with reductions in antagonist activation
  23. Single fiber velocity increases after plyometrics, with no shift in fiber type
  24. Single fiber velocity and normalized force do not increase after strength training
  25. Longer muscle moment arms increase force at slow speeds but not at high speeds
  26. Greater tendon compliance reduces maximum strength and rate of force development
  27. Passive tension of muscle fibers is affected by their lengthening velocity
  28. Pennation angle is associated with maximum muscle shortening speed
  29. High-velocity strength gains occur through several mechanisms
  30. High-velocity training causes proportionally greater gains in high-velocity strength than low-velocity strength
  31. Short rests allow more efficient gains in maximum strength, but not power
  32. Concentrics use available force capacity more rapidly than other contractions
  33. Increasing 1RM may not always transfer to increased force production in sporting movements
  34. The force-velocity relationship determines the maximum force produced by a muscle fiber, which influences the resulting adaptations from training
  35. Maximum force isometric strength training and high-velocity dynamic strength training produce different effects on the force-velocity relationship
  36. Maximum force, maximum velocity, and force-velocity profile are altered in different ways by heavy strength training and high-velocity strength training methods
  37. The limiting factors for maximum force production are different at each end of the force-velocity curve
  38. Ballistic bench press causes greater improvements in throwing performance
  39. Larger muscles have greater inertia and this reduces maximum shortening velocity

Training for maximum strength

  1. One repetition maximum (1RM) can increase in four different ways
  2. We can increase one repetition maximum in four different ways
  3. Gains in maximum strength can occur through several different mechanisms
  4. Plyometrics cause gains in maximum strength by increasing voluntary activation
  5. Performance on tests of athletic ability can be increased by things other than adaptations to training
  6. Muscle size predicts strength, but the region affects the relationship
  7. Muscle size only partly explains inter-individual variability in strength
  8. Muscle size predicts strength but other factors also important
  9. Maximal and explosive strength training cause different adaptations
  10. Maximal and explosive strength training cause different adaptations (redux)
  11. Central and peripheral factors together explain gains in maximum strength
  12. Greater gains in 1RM bench press with fast vs. slow bar speeds
  13. Greater gains in 1RM bench press by maintaining fast bar speeds
  14. Voluntary breathing affects muscle strength, but the effects are muscle-specific
  15. Jaw clenching increases strength in isometric but not dynamic efforts
  16. Bodybuilders have a lower 1RM back squat than strength athletes
  17. Daily 1RM squat training increases 1RM squat in some strength athletes
  18. Specific tension increases as a result of increased lateral force transmission
  19. Greater tendon compliance reduces maximum strength and rate of force development
  20. ACE and ACTN3 polymorphisms do not predict training responses
  21. Heavy loads produce greater gains in maximum strength by increased voluntary activation
  22. Heavy loads produce greater gains in maximum strength and rate of force development than moderate loads
  23. High-force isometric training increases voluntary activation but not rate coding
  24. Heavy load strength training produces proportionally greater gains in maximum strength than light load strength training
  25. Myofilament packing density cannot explain greater gains in strength than size
  26. Single fiber velocity and normalized force do not increase after strength training
  27. Strength training experience reduces coactivation in isometric contractions
  28. Strength training causes strength gains through supraspinal adaptations
  29. Strength-trained individuals display altered supraspinal excitability
  30. Strength training experience reduces coactivation in isometric contractions
  31. Antagonist activation increases less than agonist activation after strength training
  32. Longer rest periods are better for increasing maximum strength and size
  33. High stress levels reduce gains in maximum strength after training
  34. The force-velocity relationship determines the maximum force produced by a muscle fiber, which influences the resulting adaptations from training

Training to failure

  1. Muscular failure occurs when our capacity to produce force falls below the required level necessary to lift the weight
  2. Training to failure reduces energy stores and increases metabolic stress
  3. Training to failure and stopping short of failure produce similar hypertrophy
  4. High volumes for hypertrophy, but avoiding failure for increasing high-velocity strength
  5. Training to muscular failure is best for increasing repetition strength
  6. Training without reaching muscular failure is best for increasing power output
  7. Training to failure does not cause greater gains in maximum strength
  8. Post-workout recovery of strength takes longer when training to failure
  9. Training to failure does not necessarily cause greater gains in muscular size

Training muscles

UPPER BODY

  1. Different rowing exercises are best for activating different back muscles
  2. Latissimus dorsi most strongly activated at lower shoulder elevation angles
  3. Lumbar extensor force is reduced in full extension, but increases most at this angle after training
  4. Different pulling exercises can be used to preferentially target the biceps brachii, the latissimus dorsi, and the trapezius muscles
  5. Free weight (EZ bar) pull over exercise involves greater pectoralis major  and triceps brachii (long head) muscle activation, compared to latissimus dorsi muscle activation
  6. Shoulder angle affects the proportional contribution of each head of the triceps brachii
  7. Shoulder angle affects the capacity of the triceps brachii long head to produce a shoulder extension moment
  8. Upper body muscle volumes vary between groups
  9. There are many neck muscles, which can be classified into groups
  10. Pectoralis major clavicular head activation increased by inclined force direction

LOWER BODY

  1. Abdominal bracing increases trunk and hip extension strength
  2. Dorsiflexion during leg curls and knee extension training increases strength gains
  3. Simultaneous knee extension is key to plantar flexion voluntary activation
  4. Knee extensions cause preferential growth of the rectus femoris
  5. Increasing hip flexion increases knee flexion torque without increasing hamstrings activation
  6. Leg press training tends to increase concentric but not eccentric hamstrings strength
  7. Lateral lunge involves more knee and ankle contribution than forward lunge
  8. Good morning for training hamstrings and spinal erectors
  9. Hip thrust for gluteus maximus, but barbell deadlift for hamstrings
  10. Hip extensors challenged more by hip thrust than by squats
  11. Using a variety of exercises is better than just squats for increasing leg size
  12. The main function of both the proximal and distal regions of the adductor magnus is to perform hip extension
  13. The internal moment arm lengths of the hamstrings muscles differ from one another, over the whole knee joint range of motion
  14. The internal moment arm lengths of the hamstrings muscles differ from one another, over the whole hip joint range of motion
  15. The hamstrings muscle display quite different muscle architecture from one another, especially within the medial and lateral subgroups
  16. Estimated maximum and minimum sarcomere lengths differ between the lower body muscles
  17. Lower body muscle volumes vary between groups
  18. Neither the hamstrings nor the rectus femoris increase in size after full or half squat training
  19. Single-joint quadriceps and adductors are more active in the squat than the hamstrings and rectus femoris

Weight loss

  1. Slower rate of weight loss allows increases in fat-free mass in athletes
  2. Weight loss increases jumping and sprinting performance in athletes
  3. Resting metabolic rate is not reduced by weight loss in overweight females
  4. Dieting for bodybuilding competition involves no change in resting metabolic rate
  5. Higher protein diets increase lean body mass during an energy deficit
  6. Post-workout protein increases low muscle protein synthesis in an energy deficit

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